The following Danish report contains a study on 22 mitigation options:

Schou J.S., Kronvang, B., Birr-Pedersen, K., Jensen, P.L., Rubæk, G.H. Jørgensen, U. & Jacobsen, B. 2007.Virkemidler til realisering af målene i EUs Vandrammedirektiv. Udredning for udvalg nedsat af Finansministeriet og Miljøministeriet: Langsigtet indsats for bedre vandmiljø. Faglig rapport fra DMU, no. 625, 132 pp. (in Danish with English summary).

List of options studied:

  • Changed farming methods
  • 1. Conversion of extensive cattle production to organic production methods
  • 2. Ammonia fertilisers instead of NO3
  • 3. Catch crops – current practice
  • 4. Optimised use of catch crops
  • 5a. Demand for “injection of manure” from harvest to April
  • 5b. No tilt or plowing from harvest to April 1
  • 6. Reduced N-application by 80%
  • 7. Harvest of hay instead of permanent cattle grazing
  • 8. Reduced N-application to pastures
  • 9. Catch crops in two years after plowing of permanent pastures
  • 10. Early sowing of winter crops
  • 11. Only winter crops and undersowing of catch crops on fields with high risk of soil erosion
  • 12. Reduced P-application
  • 13. Fertilisers instead of manure

  • Change in land use
  • 14. Permanent energy crops on land in rotation
  • 15. Permanent grassland on land with high risk of soil erosion
  • 16. Buffer zones with permanent grassland adjacent to lakes and streams
  • 17. Permanent grassland on high lying fields
  • 18. Afforestation of agricultural land
  • 19. Permanent pastures or grassland in river valleys

  • Technical measures
  • 20. Incineration of livestock manure
  • 21. Stop dredging of streams
  • 22. Restoration of streams

  • The following English report contains a study on 44 mitigation options:

    Cuttle, S.P. , C.J.A. Macleod, D.R. Chadwick, D. Scholefield, P.M. Haygarth, P. Newell-Price, D. Harris, M.A. Shepherd, B.J. Chambers & R. Humphrey. 2007. An inventory of methods to control diffuse water pollution from agriculture (DWPA). User Manual. Prepared as part of Defra Project ES0203, IGER and ADAS, UK.
    here for the full report.

    The following options are dicussed in the report:

    No. Method

    Land use
    Convert arable land to extensive grassland

    Establish cover crops in the autumn

    3 Cultivate land for crop establishment in spring rather than autumn

    Adopt minimal cultivation systems

    5 Cultivate compacted tillage soils

    6 Cultivate and drill across the slope
    Soil management
    7 Leave autumn seedbeds rough

    8 Avoid tramlines over winter

    9 Establish in-field grass buffer strips

    10 Loosen compacted soil layers in grassland fields

    11 Maintain and enhance soil organic matter levels

    12 Allow field drainage systems to deteriorate

    13 Reduce overall stocking rates on livestock farms

    14 Reduce the length of the grazing day or grazing season
    Livestock management
    15 Reduce field stocking rates when soils are wet

    16 Move feed and water troughs at regular intervals

    17 Reduce dietary N and P intakes

    Adopt phase feeding of livestock

    19 Use a fertiliser recommendation system

    20 Integrate fertiliser and manure nutrient supply
    Fertiliser management
    21 Reduce fertiliser application rates

    22 Do not apply P fertilisers to high P index soils

    23 Do not apply fertiliser to high-risk areas

    24 Avoid spreading fertiliser to fields at high-risk times

    25 Increase the capacity of farm manure (slurry) stores

    26 Minimise the volume of dirty water produced

    27 Adopt batch storage of slurry

    28 Adopt batch storage of solid manure

    29 Compost solid manure

    30 Change from slurry to a solid manure handling system
    Manure management
    31 Site solid manure heaps away from watercourses and field drains

    32 Site solid manure heaps on concrete and collect the effluent

    33 Do not apply manure to high-risk areas

    34 Do not spread farmyard manure to fields at high-risk times

    35 Do not spread slurry or poultry manure to fields at high-risk times

    36 Incorporate manure into the soil

    37 Transport manure to neighbouring farms

    38 Incinerate poultry litter

    39 Fence off rivers and streams from livestock

    40 Construct bridges for livestock crossing rivers and streams
    Farm infrastructure
    41 Re-site gateways away from high-risk areas

    42 Establish new hedges

    43 Establish riparian buffer strips

    44 Establish and maintain artificial (constructed) wetlands