COST 869 - Mitigation options for nutrient reduction in surface water and groundwaters

List of options for reducing P and N loss from agriculture

Click here for updates of this list.

Factsheets on mitigation options (Best Management Practices) have also been written within the framework of the network SERA-17; click here for more information, with links to the 32 factsheets themselves.

If you want to comment on the contents of one of the factsheets please contact the first author of the factsheet. The easiest way is to copy (part of) the text into a WORD file, and use track changes; always mention the exact title of the factsheet.
Click here for a list of the first authors of all factsheets.
Please send a copy of your comment to wim.chardon@wur.nl, the editor of this list. Minor editorial remarks can also be sent directly to that address.

For practical purposes, the options are grouped in several categories, namely options for:

1. Nutrient application management
1.1 - General nutrient application management
1.2 - Inorganic fertilizer application management
1.3 - Manure production and application management
1.4 - Manure surplus management

2. Crop management

3. Livestock management + production of minerals in manure
3.1 - Overall production
3.2 - Feeding
3.3 - Grazing management
3.4 - Point sources at farm scale

4. Soil management
4.1 - Ploughing / tillage
4.2 - Measures for preventing erosion / increase infiltration
4.3 - Miscellaneous

5. Agricultural water management
5.1 - Drainage - Reduce loss by overland flow to surface water
5.2 - Drainage - Reduce loss by subsurface flow to surface water
5.3 - Drainage - Reduce loss by artificial drainage to surface water
5.4 - Irrigation

6. Land use change
6.1 - Land use re-location
6.2 - Land use extensification

7. Land infrastructure
7.1 - Manage relationships between farm and rivers or streams
7.2 - Manage relationships between livestock and rivers or streams
7.3 - Manage ditch, stream or river boundaries
7.4 - Create, maintain or manage field boundaries

8. Measures in surface water
8.1 - Channel management (ditches, streams)
8.2 - Restoration of surface waters
8.3 - Technological instruments
8.4 - Options for abatement of eutrophication









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1. Nutrient application management

1.1 General nutrient application management
[FS] P Index - a tool to evaluate risk of P runoff
[FS] Vegetative mining
[FS] Use a fertilizer recommendation system with soil testing
[FS] Method for determining the economically optimal rate of phosphorus fertilizer application
[FS] Do not apply P fertilizers to high P index soils
[FS] Integrate fertilizer and manure nutrient supply
[FS] Reduce fertilizer application rates
[FS] Reduce P-application based on soil P status
[FS] Reduce N-application
[FS] Reduced P application in peat soil
[FS] Fertilizer placement near crops
[FS] Avoid applying fertilizer and manure to high-risk areas
[FS] Avoid spreading fertilizer, manure or slurry onto fields at high-risk times

1.2 Inorganic fertilizer application management
[FS] Reducing P content of common NPK fertilizers

1.3 Manure production and application management
[FS] Increase the capacity of farm manure (slurry) stores
[FS] Adopt batch storage of solid manure or slurry
[FS] Minimize the volume of dirty water produced
[FS] Compost solid manure
[FS] Change from slurry to a solid manure handling system
[FS] Incorporate manure into the soil

1.4 Manure surplus management
[FS] Incinerate poultry manure





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2. Crop management

[FS] Catch crops and cover crops




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3. Livestock management + production of minerals in manure

3.1 Overall production
[FS] Optimize / reduce overall stocking rates on livestock farms

3.2 Feeding
[FS] Reducing content of N and P in dairy nutrition
[FS] The impact of nutrition on reduction of phosphate excretion in pigs

3.3 Grazing management
[FS] Harvest of grasslands for silage or hay instead of cattle grazing
[FS] Manage interaction between livestock and rivers or streams

3.4 Point sources at farm scale
[FS] Site solid manure heaps away from watercourses and field drains
[FS] Site solid manure heaps on concrete and collect the effluent




*


4. Soil management

4.1 Ploughing / tillage
[FS] Soil tillage and crop establishment practices to decrease nutrient losses to water introduction
[FS] On clay and silty soils - direct drilling (no tillage) in spring compared to spring ploughing
[FS] On clay and silty soils - direct-drilling in early autumn instead of ploughing for winter crops
[FS] On sandy soils spring rather than autumn cultivation for spring crop establishment
[FS] On medium to heavy soils - shallow cultivation in late autumn instead of autumn ploughing for spring crops
[FS] Shallow cultivation in early autumn instead of ploughing for winter crops
[FS] Cultivation along soil contours and across slopes
[FS] Ploughing to reduce stratification and shallow macropores
[FS] On compacted clay and silty soils - biological loosening or deep ploughing to destroy the plough pan and deep macropores
[FS] On clay and organic soils - tillage conditions to avoid soil compaction

4.2 Measures for preventing erosion / increase infiltration
[FS] Soil tillage methods to reduce erosion
[FS] Mulching
[FS] On clay and silty soils - soil cultivation to get an uneven winter soil surface
[FS] Tillage to avoid tramlines
[FS] On clay and silty soils - establishment of in-field buffer strips
[FS] Maintenance and enhancement of soil organic matter content
[FS] Use of soil stabilisers

4.3 Miscellaneous
[FS] Phosphorus immobilizing amendments to soil




*


5. Agricultural water management

5.1 Drainage - Reduce loss by overland flow to surface water
[FS] Construct ponding systems / increase soil levels along ditches
[FS] Construct grassed waterways
[FS] Install sedimentation boxes

5.2 Drainage - Reduce loss by subsurface flow to surface water
[FS] Removal of trenches and ditches / allow field drainage systems to deteriorate
[FS] and [FS] (to be combined) Install artificial drains / Improving sub-surface drainage systems

5.3 Drainage - Reduce loss by artificial drainage to surface water
[FS] and [FS] (to be combined) Use of controlled drainage for reducing the amount of water leaving a field
[FS] Let tile drainage water irrigate meadows / interrupt artificial drainage

5.4 Irrigation
[FS] Nutrient loss with surface irrigation
[FS] Tailwater recovery on irrigated fields for water and nutrient cycling




*


6. Land use change

6.1 Land use re-location
[FS] Land use re-location





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7. Land infrastructure

[FS] Overview

7.1 Manage relationships between farm and rivers or streams
[FS] Minimize the volume of dirty water produced

7.2 Manage relationships between livestock and rivers or streams
[FS] Manage interaction between livestock and rivers or streams

7.3 Manage ditch, stream or river boundaries
[FS] Create and manage vegetated buffers at field boundaries
[FS] Maintain and /or manage riparian wetlands
[FS] Delineate the functional hydrographic network

7.4 Create, maintain or manage field boundaries
[FS] Field boundaries and their potential buffer functions an overview
[FS] Hedges and hedgerow planting
[FS] Re-site gateways away from high risk areas




*


8. Measures in surface water

[FS] Protection aims for the hydrosphere: critical levels and critical loads of the nutrients C, N, P and S in surface waters and groundwater

8.1 Channel management (ditches, streams)
[FS] Stop for stream maintenance: weed cutting
[FS] Streambank and shoreline protection

8.2 Restoration of surface waters
[FS] Restoration of watercourses with reestablishment of inundated wetlands
[FS] Restored riparian wetlands
[FS] Reestablishing of lakes
[FS] Restoration of stream with reestablishment of inundated riparian wetlands

8.3 Technological instruments
[FS] Constructed wetlands

8.4 Options for abatement of eutrophication
[FS] Lake and pond treatment by nutrient inactivation



Updates of list with options, factsheets added on date:

nr-ddmmyr

76-310812 [FS] new: Avoid applying fertilizer and manure to high-risk areas
00-000000 Note: this factsheet combines the following 2 factsheets, which were cremoved from the list:
00-000000 [FS] Do not apply fertilizer to high-risk areas
00-000000 [FS] Do not apply manure to high-risk areas

77-310812 [FS] new: Avoid spreading fertilizer, manure or slurry onto fields at high-risk times
00-000000 Note: this factsheet combines the following 3 factsheets, which were thus removed from the list:
00-000000 [FS] Avoid spreading fertilizer to fields at high-risk times
00-000000 [FS] Do not spread farmyard manure to fields at high-risk times
00-000000 [FS] Do not spread slurry or poultry manure to fields at high-risk times

79-310812 [FS] new: Adopt batch storage of solid manure or slurry
00-000000 Note: this factsheet combines the following 2 factsheets, which were thus removed from the list:
00-000000 [FS] Adopt batch storage of slurry
00-000000 [FS] Adopt batch storage of solid manure

80-080110 [FS] new: The impact of nutrition on reduction of phosphate excretion in pigs
79-080110 [FS] new: Reducing dietary content of N and P excretion in dairy nutrition

00-080110 [FS] revised: Construct ponding systems / increase soil levels along ditches
00-080110 [FS] revised: Install artificial drains
00-080110 [FS] revised: Let tile drainage water irrigate meadows / interrupt artificial drainage
00-080110 [FS] revised: Construct grassed waterways

78-080110 [FS] new: Reestablishing of lakes
77-080110 [FS] new: Restoration of watercourses with reestablishment of inundated wetlands
76-080110 [FS] new: Stop for stream maintenance: weed cutting
75-080110 [FS] new: Restored riparian wetlands

00-290909 [FS] revised: Phosphorus immobilizing amendments to soil
00-170308 [FS] revised: Harvest of grasslands for silage or hay instead of cattle grazing
00-241008 [FS] revised: Adopt batch storage of slurry
00-241008 [FS] revised: Adopt batch storage of solid manure
00-151008 [FS] revised: Land use re-location

74-220808 [FS] new: Construct ponding systems / increase soil levels along ditches
73-220808 [FS] new: Construct grassed waterways
72-220808 [FS] new: Install sedimentation boxes
71-220808 [FS] new: Removal of trenches and ditches / allow field drainage systems to deteriorate
70-220808 [FS] new: Install artificial drains
69-220808 [FS] new: Use of controlled drainage for reducing the amount of water leaving a field
68-220808 [FS] new: Let tile drainage water irrigate meadows / interrupt artificial drainage

00-290508 [FS] revised: Shallow cultivation in early autumn instead of ploughing for winter crops
00-280508 [FS] revised: On medium to heavy soils - shallow cultivation in late autumn instead of autumn ploughing for spring crops
00-280508 [FS] revised: On sandy soils spring rather than autumn cultivation for spring crop establishment
00-280508 [FS] revised: Re-site gateways away from high risk areas

67-260508 [FS] new: Fertilizer placement near crops
66-260508 [FS] new: Landuse re-location
65-260508 [FS] new: Improving sub-surface drainage systems

00-150508 [FS] revised: Avoid spreading fertilizer to fields at high-risk times
00-140508 [FS] revised: Reduce fertilizer application rates
00-140508 [FS] revised: Site solid manure heaps away from watercourses and field drains
00-140508 [FS] revised: Incinerate poultry manure
00-140508 [FS] revised: Minimize the volume of dirty water produced
00-140508 [FS] revised: Site solid manure heaps on concrete and collect the effluent
00-140508 [FS] revised: Compost solid manure

64-190408 [FS] Reestablishment of inundated riparian wetlands
63-190408 [FS] Lake and pond treatment by nutrient inactivation
62-190408 [FS] Increase the capacity of farm manure (slurry) stores
61-190408 [FS] Minimize the volume of dirty water produced
60-190408 [FS] Adopt batch storage of solid manure
59-190408 [FS] Change from slurry to a solid manure handling system
58-190408 [FS] Site solid manure heaps on concrete and collect the effluent
57-190408 [FS] Do not apply manure to high-risk areas
56-190408 [FS] Do not spread slurry or poultry manure to fields at high-risk times
55-190408 [FS] Incinerate poultry litter
54-190408 [FS] Compost solid manure
53-190408 [FS] Do not spread farmyard manure to fields at high-risk times
52-150408 [FS] Reducing P content of common NPK fertilizers
51-150408 [FS] Site solid manure heaps away from watercourses and field drains
50-150408 [FS] Compost solid manure
49-150408 [FS] Adopt batch storage of slurry
48-150408 [FS] Incorporate manure into the soil
47-150408 [FS] Streambank and shoreline protection
46-150408 [FS] Harvest of grass-clover fields for silage instead of cattle grazing
45-150408 [FS] Catch crops and cover crops
44-150408 [FS] Method for determining the economically optimal rate of phosphorus fertilizer application
43-150408 [FS] Land infrastructure - Overview
42-150408 [FS] Critical levels and critical loads of the nutrients C, N, P and S in surface waters and groundwater
41-140408 [FS] Avoid spreading fertilizer to fields at high-risk times
40-140408 [FS] Do not apply fertilizer to high-risk areas
39-140408 [FS] Delineate the functional hydrographic network
38-140408 [FS] Maintain and /or manage riparian wetlands
37-140408 [FS] Constructed wetlands
36-110408 [FS] Use of controlled drainage for reducing the amount of water leaving a field
35-110408 [FS] Nutrient loss with surface irrigation
34-110408 [FS] Reduced P application in peat soil
33-100408 [FS] Manage interaction between livestock and rivers or streams
32-100408 [FS] Create and manage vegetated buffers at field boundaries
31-100408 [FS] Field boundaries and their potential buffer functions an overview
30-100408 [FS] Hedges and hedgerow planting
29-100408 [FS] Re-site gateways
28-100408 [FS] Soil tillage and crop establishment practices to decrease nutrient losses to water introduction
27-100408 [FS] Soil tillage methods to reduce erosion
26-100408 [FS] Direct drilling (no tillage) in spring compared to spring ploughing
25-100408 [FS] Direct-drilling in early autumn instead of ploughing for winter crops
24-100408 [FS] Spring rather than autumn cultivation for spring crop establishment
23-100408 [FS] Shallow cultivation in late autumn instead of ploughing for spring crops
22-100408 [FS] Shallow cultivation in early autumn instead of ploughing for winter crops
21-100408 [FS] Cultivation along soil contours and across slopes
20-100408 [FS] Ploughing to reduce stratification and shallow macropores
19-100408 [FS] Biological loosening or deep ploughing to destroy the plough pan and deep macropores
18-100408 [FS] Tillage conditions to avoid soil compaction
17-100408 [FS] Mulching
16-100408 [FS] Topsoil loosening and increased surface roughness
15-100408 [FS] Avoid tramlines over winter
14-100408 [FS] Establishment of in-field buffer strips
13-100408 [FS] Maintenance and enhancement of soil organic matter content
12-100408 [FS] Use of soil stabilisers
11-090408 [FS] P Index - a tool to evaluate risk of P runoff
10-090408 [FS] Use a fertilizer recommendation system with soil testing
09-090408 [FS] Do not apply P fertilizers to high P index soils
08-090408 [FS] Integrate fertilizer and manure nutrient supply
07-090408 [FS] Reduce excessive soil organic matter content in relation to stocking / animal density on livestock farms
06-090408 [FS] Optimize / reduce overall stocking rates on livestock farms
05-090408 [FS] Phosphorus immobilizing amendments to soil
04-080408 [FS] Vegetative mining
03-080408 [FS] Use a fertilizer recommendation system with soil testing
02-080408 [FS] Reduce P-application based on soil P status
01-080408 [FS] Reduce N-application